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BigTree CMS 4.2 is a fast and lightweight, free and open source, enterprise-grade content management system (CMS) with extensive and extensible content management capabilities. Notable BigTree CMS features include: full data caching, advanced content governance, integrated site integrity monitoring, powerful add-on extensions, and fine-grained user and permissions management.
In this tutorial we are going to install BigTree CMS 4.2 on a FreeBSD 11 FAMP VPS using Apache web server, PHP 7.1, and a MariaDB database.
- A clean Vultr FreeBSD 11 server instance with SSH access
Step 1: Add a Sudo User
We will start by adding a new
First, log into your server as
ssh [email protected]_VULTR_IP_ADDRESS
sudo command isn’t installed by default in the Vultr FreeBSD 11 server instance, so we will first install
pkg install sudo
Now add a new user called
user1 (or your preferred username):
adduser command will prompt you for lots of details for the user account, so simply select the defaults for most of them when it makes sense to do so. When you are asked whether to
Invite user1 into any other groups?, you should enter
wheel to add
user1 to the
Now check the
/etc/sudoers file to make sure that the
sudoers group is enabled:
Look for a section like this:
# %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL
This line tells us that users who are members of the
wheel group can use the
sudo command to gain
root privileges. It will be commented out by default so you will need to uncomment it and then save and exit the file.
We can verify the
user1 group membership with the
user1 is not a member of the
wheel group, you can use this command to update the
user1 group membership:
pw group mod wheel -m user1
Now use the
su command to switch to the new sudo user
su - user1
The command prompt will update to indicate that you are now logged into the
user1 account. You can verify this with the
Now restart the
sshd service so that you can login via
ssh with the new non-root sudo user account you have just created:
sudo /etc/rc.d/sshd restart
root account (which will disconnect your
You can now
ssh into the server instance from your local host using the new non-root sudo user
ssh [email protected]_VULTR_IP_ADDRESS
If you want to execute
sudo without having to type a password every time, then open the
/etc/sudoers file again, using
Edit the section for the
wheel group so that it looks like this:
%wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
Please note: Disabling the password requirement for the sudo user is not a recommended practice, but it is included here as it can make server configuration much more convenient and less frustrating, especially during longer systems administration sessions. If you are concerned about the security implications, you can always revert the configuration change to the original after you finish your administration tasks.
Whenever you want to log into the
root user account from within the
sudo user account, you can use one of the following commands:
sudo -i sudo su -
You can exit the
root account and return back to your
sudo user account any time by simply typing:
Step 2: Update FreeBSD 11 System
Before installing any packages on the FreeBSD server instance, we will first update the system.
Make sure you are logged into the server using a non-root sudo user and run the following commands:
sudo freebsd-update fetch sudo freebsd-update install sudo pkg update sudo pkg upgrade
Step 3: Install Apache Web Server
Install the Apache 2.4 web server:
sudo pkg install apache24
y when prompted.
Now use the
sysrc command to enable the Apache service to execute automatically at boot time.
sudo sysrc apache24_enable=yes
sysrc command updates the
/etc/rc.conf configuration file, so if you want to verify the configuration update manually you can simply open the
/etc/rc.conf file with your favourite terminal editor.
Now start the Apache service:
sudo service apache24 start
You can quickly check that apache is running by visiting the IP address or domain of the server instance in your browser:
You will see the default FreeBSD Apache page displaying the text:
Check your Apache default configuration file to ensure that the
DocumentRoot directive points to the correct directory.
sudo vi /usr/local/etc/apache24/httpd.conf
DocumentRoot configuration option should look like this:
We now need to enable the
mod_rewrite Apache module. We can do this by searching the default Apache configuration file for the term
By default, the
mod_rewrite Apache module will be commented out (which means it is disabled). The configuration line on a clean Vultr FreeBSD 11 instance will look like this:
#LoadModule rewrite_module libexec/apache24/mod_rewrite.so
Simply remove the hash symbol to uncomment the line and load the module. This, of course, applies to any other required Apache modules too.
LoadModule rewrite_module libexec/apache24/mod_rewrite.so
We now need to edit The
Directory Apache directive in the same configuration file so that
mod_rewrite will work correctly with BigTree CMS.
Find the section of the configuration file that starts with
<Directory "/usr/local/www/apache24/data"> and change
AllowOverride none to
AllowOverride All. The end result (with all comments removed) will look something like this:
<Directory "/var/www/html"> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks AllowOverride All Require all granted </Directory>
Now save and exit the Apache configuration file.
We will restart Apache at the end of this tutorial, but restarting Apache regularly during installation and configuration is certainly a good habit, so let’s do it now.
sudo service apache24 restart
Step 4: Install PHP 7.1
We can now install PHP 7.1 along with all of the necessary PHP modules required by BigTree CMS.
sudo pkg install php71 mod_php71 php71-gd php71-mbstring php71-mysqli php71-curl php71-ctype php71-tokenizer php71-dom php71-session php71-iconv php71-hash php71-json php71-fileinfo php71-pdo php71-pdo_mysql php71-zlib php71-openssl
FreeBSD 11 gives us the option to use a development
php.ini or a production
php.ini. Since we are going to install BigTree on a public web server, we’ll use the production version. First, back up
sudo cp /usr/local/etc/php.ini-production /usr/local/etc/php.ini-production.backup
sudo ln -s /usr/local/etc/php.ini-production /usr/local/etc/php.ini
Big Tree CMS requires us to modify the default PHP settings, so open
sudo vi /usr/local/etc/php.ini
Add or edit the following PHP options:
short_open_tag = On upload_max_filesize = 32MB
Once you have added the above options, save and exit the file.
We need to configure Apache to actually use PHP, so let’s create a new file called
php.conf in the Apache
sudo vi /usr/local/etc/apache24/Includes/php.conf
Enter the following text into the newly created file:
<IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index.php index.html <FilesMatch "/.php$"> SetHandler application/x-httpd-php </FilesMatch> <FilesMatch "/.phps$"> SetHandler application/x-httpd-php-source </FilesMatch> </IfModule>
Save and exit the file.
Now let’s restart Apache so that it can reload the configuration changes:
sudo service apache24 restart
Step 5: Install MariaDB (MySQL) Server
FreeBSD 11 defaults to using MariaDB database server, which is an enhanced, fully open source, community developed, drop-in replacement for MySQL server.
Install the latest version of MariaDB database server:
sudo pkg install mariadb102-server mariadb102-client
Start and enable MariaDB server to execute automatically at boot time.
sudo sysrc mysql_enable="yes" sudo service mysql-server start
Secure your MariaDB server installation:
When prompted to create a MariaDB/MySQL
root user, select “Y” (for yes) and then enter a secure
root password. Simply answer “Y” to all of the other yes/no questions as the default suggestions are the most secure options.
Step 6: Create Database for BigTree CMS
Log into the MariaDB shell as the MariaDB
root user by running the following command:
sudo mysql -u root -p
To access the MariaDB command prompt, simply enter the MySQL
root password when prompted.
Run the following queries to create a MySQL database and database user for BigTree CMS.
CREATE DATABASE bigtree_db CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci; CREATE USER 'bigtree_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'UltraSecurePassword'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON bigtree_db.* TO 'bigtree_user'@'localhost'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT;
You can replace the database name
bigtree_db and username
bigtree_user with something more to your liking, if you prefer. Also, make sure that you replace “UltraSecurePassword” with an actually secure password.
Step 7: Install BigTree CMS Files
Change your current working directory to the default web directory.
Your current working directory will now be:
/usr/local/www/apache24/data. You can check this with the
pwd (print working directory) command:
wget to download the BigTree CMS installation package.
sudo wget https://www.bigtreecms.org/files/installers/bigtree-4.2.19.zip
Please note: The above BigTree CMS package URL was correct at the time of writing, but you should definitely check for the most recent version by visiting the BigTree CMS download page.
List the current directory to check that you have successfully downloaded the file.
Now uncompress the zip archive.
sudo unzip bigtree-4.2.19.zip
Move all of the installation files to the web root directory:
sudo mv BigTree-CMS/* /usr/local/www/apache24/data
Change ownership of the web files to avoid any permissions problems.
sudo chown -R www:www * ./
Make sure that the webroot is writable.
sudo chmod 777 ./
Restart Apache again.
sudo service apache24 restart
Now we’re ready to move on to the final step.
Step 8: Complete BigTree CMS Installation
It’s time to visit the IP address of your server instance in your browser, or, if you’ve already configured your Vultr DNS settings (and given it enough time to propagate) you can simply visit your domain instead.
To access the BigTree CMS installation page, enter your Vultr instance IP address into your browser address bar, followed by
Most of the installation options are self explanatory, but here are a few pointers to help you along:
Enter the following database values:
Hostname: localhost Database: bigtree_db Username: bigtree_user Password: UltraSecurePassword
Enter the following Administrator Account details:
Email Address: <your email address> Password: <a secure password>
Enter your preferred site routing options:
Routing: Simple Rewrite Routing URL Behaviour: URLs End With Page Slug
Install Example Site” if you want to experiment with the example site files. If you want to start with a completely fresh site then leave this box unchecked.
Click on the “
Install Now” button to continue the BigTree CMS installation.
You will be redirected to the BigTree CMS
Installation Complete page.
To access the Administration Area, simply click on the admin link or enter your domain or IP address into your browser with
admin/ after the URL:
Simply enter your login details to access the Administration Area.
You are now ready to start adding your content and configuring the look and feel of your site. Make sure you check out the BigTree CMS documentation for more information about how to build and configure your site.
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